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Research Papers

Cam deformity: Nature (born with it) or Nurture (a result of sports)? AJSM 2012:40:1099-1106

While being a fairly recent addition to the diagnostic options for hip pain, cam impingement has quickly become a well-recognized cause of hip pain that might eventually lead to osteoarthritis of the hip. Cam impingement is most commonly seen in young, active male patients, but when does this deformity occur? At birth? During growth?

When 20%-25% of ACL patients re-injure their knee, we must be missing something

The athlete who suffers an torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) will in all likelihood be advised to have ligament reconstruction surgery. The majority of ACL reconstruction surgeries will successfully restore the knee’s stability, but post-surgical outcomes remain quite variable. Less than half of athletes who have the operation will be able to return to their sport within the first year after surgery (despite some widely praised athletes who return within only a few months after surgery).

That all important denominator for injury rates: time or exposure based?

Doing an injury surveillance study may begin with simply counting the number of injuries (that, ideally, meets the most widely adopted definition of injury set forth by Fuller, et al., in Brit J Sports Med 2006; 40:193-201). But that just gives the frequency of injury during some defined time period.

Just how intense are training activities?

Coaching books are full of suggested activities to improve skill, fitness, team tactics, and more. When a coach is planning a training session, training choices need to fit in with the yearly, monthly, weekly, and daily training plan especially as the activity relates to training intensity. Unfortunately, most descriptions of training activities fail to offer any statements on the quantified intensity forcing the coach to make a purely subjective decision about any task’s intensity; something coaches probably are poorly equipped to do.

Time lost to hamstring injury and MR imaging

Football physicians realize that a hamstring strain has climbed to the top of the injury rankings in professional football. These same physicians also know that the time lost to this injury is proportional to the amount of tissue damaged so MRI is a common method to confirm the diagnosis and make an estimate on the possible time when a player can return to training and competition.

The heart of a footballer: how different is it?

A key goal of FIFA and F-MARC is prevention of sudden cardiac death during football. Despite the high visibility of these tragic events and pressure from sporting and medical bodies to mandate full cardiovascular screening prior to participation, players are still dying on the field. FIFA requires all participates in events they sponsor to have had a complete cardiovascular evaluation prior to the even. One of the required tests is the simple resting electrocardiogram. Part of the problem is that clinical norms are based on a largely non-athletic, and racially homogenous, population.

Strict enforcement of elbow-head fouls: is it working?

Video analysis of soccer matches has successfully described the mechanisms of injury and has identified specific circumstances that raise the chances of a more serious injury and extended time loss. Video study of Norwegian male professional football matches from 2000 to 2010 has verified that the rate of injury from player contact has risen by about 50%. Before the 2006 FIFA World Cup, referees were given the authority to administer an immediate red card for an intentional elbow-to-head contact as well as late or two-footed tackles.

Why aren’t athletes more forthcoming about their concussion symptoms?

Clinicians are acutely aware of the increased visibility and concern about concussive injury during sport, especially during soccer. Soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the head to control and advance the ball and because this skill places the player in a vulnerable situation that exposes the head to potential injury, especially during heading duels.

Reference values for the Copenhagen hip and groin outcome score

Reports of ‘hip injury’ in professional sports seem to be more frequent, but also are media reports of total hip replacements in retired players, many of whom had no record of a diagnosed femoral-acetabular injury. The lack of diagnostic criteria and

Identify risks of ankle sprain in the pre-participation physical exam

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More on the artificial turf versus natural grass debate

The earliest injury surveillance studies comparing artificial turf vs. natural grass reported a higher rate of injury on artificial turf. Technological advances in artificial turf design and materials have resulted in products whose characteristics are more similar to natural grass that the earliest generations of artificial turf.

After 10 years, the relative age effect remains evident in youth soccer

For any sport to continue to develop future generations of players, barriers to participation must be minimized so that younger athletes continue to enjoy participation and improvement. One such barrier in age-group sport is called the relative age effect (RAE), which is an over selection of players born earlier in the defined birth year.

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